If students are expected to achieve common standards, parents will want to know about the relationship between the IEP goals and the content standards. At the current time it is unknown, however, whether the necessary instructional characteristics can be delivered comprehensively enough to allow all students with disabilities to meet common content standards. BOX 4-1 Credentialing, the High School Diploma, and Students with Disabilities. In education, pragmatism is an approach to learning and teaching that focuses on keeping things practical. Nearly one-third of students with visual impairments and those with speech impairments spent 75 percent or more of their time in high school in general education courses and maintained a B average or better. A prominent early educationalist who is associated with the development of the product model as a curriculum paradigm is Ralph Tyler. Although several researchers have suggested that students with mild disabilities, particularly those identified as having a learning disability, may well be able to achieve beyond their current performance levels in academic content areas (Carnine et al., 1990; Ellis et al., 1990; Zigmond and Miller, 1992), many of these students nevertheless encounter difficulties meeting the general education requirements (see Chapter 3). Principle of Conservation; Indeed, three empirical literatures question the tenability of constructivist principles for many students with disabilities. A term being introduced by numerous states is expectations . To obtain a richer picture of the types of standards being developed by states across content domains, the committee examined more closely the content standards documents developed by seven states that represent both early and more recent developers of content standards, as well a regional mix.1 We looked at standards documents to get a sense of whether they were strictly academic or more comprehensive. Evidence of potential effects of content standards on the instruction provided to students with disabilities appears in a report of a national investigation of the national curriculum of England and Wales conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research/Bishop Grosseteste College (Christophers et al., 1992). Whether students with disabilities will participate successfully in standards-based reform will depend largely on the degree of alignment between these two sets of assumptions. The statutory meaning of the term transition services is "a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing education, adult services, independent living, or community participation" (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments, 1990, Section [A], 20 U.S.C. For many students with sensory or motor impairments or other noncognitive disabilities, for example, the common content standards are likely to be highly appropriate, perhaps requiring accommodations only in instruction and assessment. Any discussion of desired outcomes and standards relevant to all students will need to consider these important findings. Some argue that there is no substantive relationship between academic content and the awarding of a high school diploma (Bishop, 1989, 1994; Sedlak et al., 1986). Included under the category of tutorial is drill-and-practice software and other explicit instruction applications. The states selected for review were Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Vermont. 1401[a]). This chapter provides an overview of post-school outcomes and curricular and instructional issues for students with disabilities and their relationships to standards. Production. The Kentucky Department of Education's state standards are actually called Kentucky's Learning Goals and Academic Expectations and consist of broad goals to be achieved and demonstrated prior to graduation (Kentucky Department of Education, 1994). The performance of one randomly selected student in each pair was measured twice weekly, and the teacher formulated instructional decisions for both students in the pair based on the one student's assessment results. Second, content standards guide public school instruction, curriculum, and assessment in an organized and meaningful manner—essentially providing a map of where the curriculum should go and enabling schools and teachers to tailor their instruction to fit the needs of diverse learners. There is no right or wrong approach to curriculum design, but schools should be clear on the values that are behind their chosen design. This preview shows page 4 - 6 out of 7 pages.. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 4 principles, theory, and research. Findings also corroborated the impression that teachers in special education tend to place greater emphasis on social skills, practical life skills, and cultural experiences than on fostering intellectual development of their students through the national curriculum (Wylie et al., 1995:289). Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. But in actual practice, most schools are not using these approaches. The book addresses legal and resource implications, as well as parental participation in children's education. It is also important to understand the extent to which students with disabilities have or have not been considered in the design of standards-based reforms, particularly content standards. Individually referenced decision making is perhaps the signature feature of effective special education practice, exemplifying a basic value and representing a core assumption of special educators' professional preparation. Basic principles of curriculum development 1. The goals of standards-based reform to raise expectations, improve educational outcomes, and strengthen curriculum content are as important to students with disabilities as they are to children without disabilities. These pedagogical features noted by the committee in its examination of state standards appear to be part of a larger trend across national and state content standards. The results of this research have been equivocal. Bishop sees students having the opportunity to signal higher achievement to potential employers as providing an important incentive. It will be important to ensure a match between the individual student's curriculum/standards, especially if they have been altered, and the assessments given to evaluate that child's progress. Schools should be succinct and articulate on what’s important for their curriculum and why. That totality can be planned for and experienced by learners across four contexts: Curriculum areas and subjects; … Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. And time must be provided for collegial activities and teacher reflection. In sum, standards-based reform holds considerable expectations for educators, and preparing them to meet these expectations is likely to require significant resources (Box 4-3). Under standards-based reform, curriculum and instruction may become more abstract and more academic, and children may be taught in ways that are unfamiliar to parents. Data are mostly confined to vari-. About 62 percent of students spend half or more of their instructional time in general education; this varies considerably by disability. Among individuals with cognitive disabilities, the characteristics apply to the entire range of students, from those with mild to those with severe disabilities. We note that these three instructional characteristics represent practices that often differ from those of general education. the demands of the environment; skills are never taught in isolation from actual performance demands. Defining appropriate learning objectives. When these students fail to acquire early mathematics proficiency, they do not succeed in an academic track (which requires high-order, problem-solving applications of earlier math content) or a basic track (which requires applications to. This cognitive approach to instruction, called constructivism, asserts that the learner is the most important element in the teaching-learning situation—more important than materials, lessons, teachers, and other external factors. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. The second tenet of constructivism that appears somewhat problematic for students with cognitive disabilities is the assumption that cognitive components should not be isolated or fractionated and that the curriculum should not be taught as a series of discrete skills. In this approach, each student's long-term outcomes (e.g., degree of independence, employment) are designated through the IEP process; instruction then focuses on building skills that will lead to these outcomes in age-appropriate natural settings. They define the breadth and depth of valued knowledge that students are expected to learn, and they are intended to reduce the curriculum disparities existing across schools and school districts. For example, Goals 2000 encourages states and local school districts to develop and implement new forms of sustained professional development. Participation of students with disabilities in common content standards raises a number of complex legal and educational issues. Production applications include the familiar word processor as well as multimedia development tools. Furthermore, data linking participation in the general education curriculum to academic achievement are largely absent due to the lack of representation of students with disabilities in large-scale national studies, such as the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (McGrew et al., 1993, 1995). TABLE 4-1 Percentage of Fourth Grade Students With and Without Disabilities Whose Teachers Report Using Various Instructional Methods in Reading and Mathematics, 1992 Regular Classroom Reading/English/Language Instructional Methods (weighted), 1992 Regular Classroom Mathematics Instructional Methods (weighted). These characteristics are placement-neutral; that is, they describe how instruction occurs, not where instruction takes place. However, in keeping with the goals of standards-based reform, such alternate standards will need to be challenging and set high expectations for these students, and systems must be held accountable for student progress. It is equally important that the nature of participation in standards-based reform for each child with disabilities be considered carefully and systematically. The need for curriculum development usually emerges from a concern … Generally, the use of instructional technologies can be categorized in four ways: Tutorial. For students with disabilities, the degree to which a set of content standards is relevant to their valued educational outcomes and consistent with proven instructional practices will determine how successfully they will participate in standards-based reform. McLaughlin, unpublished data, 1997). To teach phonemic awareness, the experiment contrasted a conventional ''skill-and-drill" approach, whereby students learn skills through drill and practice but not in an explicit context, with a "metalevel" approach, which teaches skills through learning experiences situated within particular contexts. Torgesen (1996), for example, has studied students with phonological processing deficits, who had been predicted to experience serious problems in learning to read. For example, in order to learn to read, many children with cognitive disabilities require explicit, structured instruction (Stanovich, 1995). 2. Although much has been done in the field of assistive technology, it is in instructional technology that most of the attention has been directed, especially for students with mild disabilities. Similar concerns have been raised about whether general classroom teachers are hampered by a lack of knowledge about how to effectively educate and individualize instruction for students with disabilities. Instructional technology refers to the use of computers and other related technologies to deliver and support instruction. Research has not been conducted to determine the extent to which these characteristics apply when students with cognitive disabilities learn content that requires high levels of abstraction or creativity. In addition, the common content standards may bear little resemblance to the skills and knowledge that most students with severe cognitive disabilities require for successful post-school adjustment. This lack of data is particularly pronounced at the elementary school level. More research is needed in order to determine the most effective uses of assistive and instructional technologies for students. Research on specific interventions that applied these three characteristics to teach students with cognitive disabilities documented positive effects ranging from .50 to over 1.5 standard deviations (Forness and Kavale, 1996; Swanson, 1996). Its four sections focus on setting objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing instruction, and evaluating progress. Thus, content standards are not simply a list of important knowledge and skills. Far fewer states are developing standards in the arts (n = 31), health (n = 29), vocational/technical education (n = 16), or practical living skills (n = 9). There is no reason to believe that simply putting technology in front of a student with disabilities should automatically make the student a better learner. It requires teachers to plan and make ongoing, major adjustments and revisions in response to an individual student's learning, and it requires knowledge of multiple ways to adapt curricula, modify instructional methods, and motivate students. This research proposes that, in order for some kinds of learning to occur, students must play an active role in. Research indicates that analyzing and teaching tasks in their component parts is effective and often necessary for many students with cognitive disabilities. Together, these three broad characteristics of effective special education instruction—individually referenced decision making, intensive instruction, and explicit contextualization of skills-based instruction—represent a potent set of practices, which have been demonstrated to enhance the learning for students with cognitive disabilities. Some state content frameworks focus on big ideas rather than specifics (Elmore and Fuhrman, 1994). Nevertheless, a basic question of equity remains as to whether all students, regardless of where they attend school or what their special needs are, will be provided with adequate instructional opportunities to learn the content for which they will be held accountable. Ralph W. Tyler (1902–1994) was an American educator who worked in the field of assessment and evaluation. The review of math and science standards by the Council of Chief State School Officers (Blank and Pechman, 1995) indicated that within the 40 state standards frameworks reviewed, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) standards, the AAAS benchmarks (1993), and the National Research Council's science education standards (1996) were represented. The results of this review of state standards indicated that recently developed state standards frameworks link math. What can we do to help prepare our children for their future lives? "Effective" is defined as statistically significant gains in specific skills. Students with cognitive disabilities require intensive instruction, whereas carefully designed nonintensive instruction appears to meet the needs of most students without disabilities. She writes, edits and oversees all curriculum materials and leads our creative team. Specifically, this work focused on the administrative aspects of the curriculum and called for the application of four basic principles in the development of any curricular project. Those least likely to spend half or more time in general education include students with multiple disabilities (15 percent of that group) and mental retardation (29 percent of that group). With our faith-based rehabilitation program, our team has been able to guide and empower thousands of men down a path of true recovery. The need to improve outcomes derives in part from data documenting problematic post-school outcomes for students with disabilities (Edgar et al., 1986; Hasazi et al., 1985; Blackorby and Wagner, 1996; see Chapter 3). You can think of curriculum principles as being like those by which you live your life and base important decisions on. Of the 35 states responding that their content standards will apply to special education students, 17 reported that all standards will apply to students with a mild disability; 17 states added the qualifier that the extent of participation in standards for those with a mild disability is an IEP decision. Two areas that were of particular interest to the committee were the content domains addressed by the standards and the pedagogical implications. For students with severe disabilities, the "criterion of ultimate functioning" is often used to guide instructional and curricular planning (Brown et al., 1976). We then examine how these standards interact with the educational outcomes and curricular and instructional experiences that are valued for students with disabilities. Promising alternatives to traditional professional development models include teacher collaboratives and other networks, subject matter associations, collaborations between schools and universities, professional development schools, and teachers as researchers (Corcoran, 1995; Little, 1993; National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996; O'Day et al., 1995). Examples of areas to receive decreased attention include isolated treatment of paper-and-pencil computations, use of clue words to determine which math operations to use, an emphasis on one right answer and one correct method, and teaching by telling. In particular, legal analysis of the existing law suggests that IEP teams will need to pay specific attention to content and performance standards when they write or review the sections of the IEP addressing current levels of educational performance, annual goals, short-term objectives, extent of participation in general education programs, and use of objective criteria and evaluations (20 U.S.C. Extant surveys of state standards are limited by both the criteria used for reporting and evaluating the standards and when the data were collected. Once a school has decided upon its principles, and is clear on their purpose, only then can they begin to think about the design of their curriculum. Research and demonstration programs have shown that many individuals can take their place in the community workforce if provided with comprehensive employment training. Research demonstrates that such alternative frameworks can result in more ambitious goals for students with disabilities (e.g., Fuchs et al., 1989a) as well as stronger student learning (e.g., Fuchs et al., 1991b; Jones and Krouse, 1988; Wesson, 1991). Teachers design each curriculum with a specific educational purpose in mind. Despite some questions about the pertinence of constructivist assumptions to programs for some students with cognitive disabilities, constructivist philosophy nevertheless has influenced concepts of effective special education practice in substantial ways. Cwricwlwm Maestro is an online system designed to help schools in Wales design, deliver and manage a bespoke curriculum. Some of the most successful examples of technology use for students with disabilities have occurred with assistive technology devices. But they contrast with special education practice that has maintained a strong focus on the explicit teaching of basic skills. Even though technologies have advanced over the past 30 years and have provided us with new and improved ways for delivering instruction, simply improving the delivery system does not guarantee instruction will be improved. Limit the number of new concepts introduced in a lesson, and focus first on the most basic concepts before advancing to the more complex concepts. Maryland is developing a set of alternate outcomes and content and performance standards for students with severe cognitive disabilities who participate in a functional curriculum. The districts are demographically and geographically diverse. Here are a few key principles to keep in mind as you approach planning the curriculum for your course. However they show a similar increase over time in academic course-taking (from 12.6 to 14.2 credits), whereas vocational course-taking has remained level (See Table 4-2). The exploratory use of technology in special education has evolved more recently with the development of multimedia platforms and software. Curriculum Maestro is an online system to help you design, deliver and manage an outstanding primary curriculum. real-world situations (Bryan et al., 1992). have alternate standards for English or language arts, if it is determined that the competing priority of learning to read is higher than studying American literature. These activities are supported by redirecting current professional development dollars and, in some cases, adding new dollars. For example, students in upper grades spent significantly less time in academic courses than did those in the lower grades. Analyses conducted for the committee of the Prospects study (see Appendix C) provide information on third and fourth grade students. Thus, additional professional development will be essential to help both general educators and special educators understand new content standards and their pedagogical implications and to prepare them to accommodate a range of learners. Furthermore there are almost no data about what it may cost to include students with disabilities in standards-based reform, above and beyond the general costs of implementing these reforms. Concerns have been raised about whether, as a consequence, special educators have had less time to acquire knowledge related to content standards and core curriculum and instruction. With these applications, technology becomes a tool to facilitate the student synthesis and production of information in the form of multimedia presentations. Researchers have demonstrated that teaching these skills in group settings often dilutes the intensity of the instruction and proves unsuccessful in terms of both acquiring and generalizing the skills (e.g., Reid and Favell, 1984; Alberto et al., 1980). First, the needs of each student ought to be considered individually, taking into account the nature, type, and level of each child's disability rather than his or her disability label or service delivery arrangement. Both curriculum and instruction in turn are shaped by expectations about the kinds of educational outcomes that students should manifest by the time they graduate from high school. Standards-based reform has been built around a specific set of assumptions about curriculum and instruction, embodied in the content and performance standards that are central to the reforms. Many content standards are still in the developmental phase, and almost no data are available about their effects on classroom practice and student learning, let alone their specific impacts on students with disabilities. Special educators will also need to learn effective methods for modifying the general curriculum for students with disabilities. As a result, information about the specific effects of participation in new content standards on students with disabilities is largely anecdotal or derived from local case studies. As explained in Chapter 2, the concept of opportunity to learn holds that it is unfair to expect students to attain standards unless they have been provided with instructional practices, conditions, and resources of sufficient quality and quantity to enable them to learn the content in the standards. As discussed in Chapter 2, states are taking various approaches to developing content standards; consequently, their standards tend to differ by level of. With the civil rights movement of the past two decades, one aspect of which focused on educating students with disabilities in public schools, traditional outcomes were reconceptualized to encompass: (1) employment, useful work, and activity valued. Although it seems quite likely that educating all children to meet higher standards will require some additional resources, research sheds little, if any, light on how much this will cost. Some states attach specific standards to grade levels; other provide more general outcomes that must be met at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. For example. This investment would cost $2.75 billion a year. First. Research shows that, in general education, teachers typically judge the success or failure of an instructional activity primarily by its capacity to maintain classroom flow, orderliness, and cooperation (Clark and Elmore, 1981; Yinger, 1979). For review were Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, new York,,! 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