[4][24][25] All the Swedish commanders showed ability, but the chief glory of the day was attributed to Charles XI and his fighting spirit. [9], His mother, Queen Hedvig Eleonora, remained the formal regent until Charles XI attained his majority on 18 December 1672, but she was careful not to embroil herself in political conflicts. He was the King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his 1844 death. The church order declared that the king was ruler of the Church in the same way that he ruled the country and God ruled the world. Harald Greycloak also r… [29] His sudden death in 1680 opened up the road to the monarch, and many men tried to get close to the king to take Gyllenstierna's place. A remedy was attempted by chancellor Nils Brahe, who traveled to Copenhagen in the spring of 1675 to try to get the Danish princess Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark engaged to the Swedish king. Carl XV (1826-1872), in Swedish Karl XV and in English alternately referred to as Charles, was King of Sweden 1859-1872 and as Carl IV also King of Norway (same period). [93][95] Moreover, it antagonized the pro-French faction at the Swedish court. Bernadotte moved West as ordered, pursued by Bennigsen where he ably defeated the numerically superior Russian vanguard at Mohrungen (25 January 1807). Finally, Kexholm and Ingria were sparsely populated and not of great interest. The council answered that the will must first be discussed with the parliament, and at the following council in Stockholm on 13 May, the council tried to keep her from attending. [59] Joseph Bonaparte, Bernadotte's friend and brother-in-law, was chosen instead. In the summer of 1696, he asked his doctors for an opinion on the pain as it had continuously become worse, but they had no viable cure or treatment for it. However, the birth of the King of Rome put an end to Napoleon's need for an heir. [17] However, his popularity and contacts with radical Jacobins aroused antipathy towards him in the government. [86], The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. [40][41], Charles was a devoted Lutheran Christian. [87] Even if Finland was regained, he thought, it would put Sweden into a new cycle of conflicts with a powerful neighbor because there was no guarantee Russia would accept the loss as final. -- Joseph GAON (? Oscar II (21 January 1829 – 8 December 1907), baptised Oscar Fredrik, was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death and King of Norway from 1872 until 1905. Upon his departure from Denmark he was one of few Frenchmen of the period to be awarded the Order of the Elephant. Changes in finance, commerce, national maritime and land armaments, judicial procedure, church government, and education emerged during this period. In February 1686, a church law was put forth on his initiative. The hostility of Poland and the breakup of Russia involved him in overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611) and the Ingrian War, while his pretensions to claim Lappland brough… [38][39], Charles believed it was very important to assimilate the new Swedish territories of Scania, Blekinge, Halland, in southern Sweden; Bohuslän in western Sweden and Jämtland, in northern Sweden, and the island of Gotland. Sweden reluctantly declared war against the UK but it was treated by both countries as being merely nominal, although Swedish imports of British goods decreased from £4,871 million in 1810 to £523 million in the following year. - 1705?) Another trait was a deep religious devotion: he was God-fearing, frequently prayed kneeling and attended sermons. [45], It is said that on his death bed, Charles XI admitted to his mother that he hadn't been happy since Ulrika Eleonora's death. Her reply that the council would be allowed to meet without her and only inform her when they considered it necessary was met with satisfaction from the council. [83] Charles John survived the abdication controversy and he went on to have his silver jubilee, which was celebrated with great enthusiasm on 18 February 1843. They also had strong support from the local villages. He tried to divert public opinion from Finland to Norway, by arguing that to create a compact peninsula, with sea for its natural boundary, was to inaugurate an era of peace, and that waging war with Russia would lead to ruinous consequences. Charles continued south through Scania, arriving on the tableland of the flooded Kävlinge River – near Lund – on 11 November. [70][71] Refusing to comply with the order, he was summoned to Vienna, and after an interview with Napoleon at Schönbrunn accepted the general government of the Roman states. They married at Skottorp on May 6, 1680 in a hasty ceremony, as Charles prioritized government work over private matters, even a marriage ceremony. [55] The Russians resumed the offensive that summer and Bernadotte was attacked by, and defeated, a strong Prussian Corps at Spanden, preserving the French bridgehead over the Pasłęka, where he was nearly killed when a spent ball struck him in the neck. [114], Louis-Émile Vanderburch and Ferdinand Langlé's 1833 play Le Camarade de lit ("The Bedfellow") depicts Bernadotte as King of Sweden; an old grenadier claims that, as a young man, Bernadotte received a tattoo of a scandalous republican motto: either Mort aux Rois ("Death to kings"), or Mort aux tyrans ("Death to tyrants"), or Mort au Roi ("Death to the king"). Their adherence to the [90][91], In January 1812, French troops suddenly invaded Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen. The navy was bolstered with the founding of a naval base at Karlskrona in 1680 which became the main base of future operations. - 1054?) His fresh troops, reinforced by 30,000 Prussians, joined the fray against the already battered French lines where Swedish forces entered battle in numbers for the first time in the campaign. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. This would ensure that Sweden would not be isolated if there was a war, and that the national finances would improve thanks to French subsidies. In his farewell note to Bernadotte on his way to Italy, Napoleon wrote: "I am going to fling myself once more into the hazards of war. Bernadotte's Army of the North would continue to guard Berlin and keep watch on Davout's forces in Hamburg while the Allies, in accordance with the plan conceived at Trachenberg, maneuvered toward Napoleon's army at Leipzig. [58], During Bernadotte's time as governor of the Hanseatic cities, the Abdications of Bayonne occurred, an event that triggered the Peninsular War that would play so large a role in Napoleon's defeat. [13], Bernadotte played key roles throughout the next 18 months during the three French invasions into Germany; often employed in the place of honor during offensives leading the vanguard, and in retreat as a defensive specialist commanding the rearguard. 6–7. During the war, Ulrika Eleonora gained a reputation for loyalty to her future home country by exhibiting kindness to Swedish prisoners: she pawned her jewelry, even her engagement ring, to care for the Swedish prisoners of war. [51][52] Bernadotte held his troops to the same high standard and punished looting and raping severely and was known to intervene with his sword drawn against those engaged in pillaging, as was the case following the capture of Lübeck.[53][54]. [17], After the Treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France. He was baptised "Jean-Baptiste of Radzilow" on 17 December 1768 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. [4][17] This was seen as an appointment of trust as while Napoleon embarked on his summer Italian Campaign, where he ultimately prevailed at the Battle of Marengo, he left Bernadotte not far from Paris with an army. It is pointed out as the origin of Swedish neutrality. -- Marie (Bertandot de Higueres) de la BARRIERE (? The Swedish nobles were loyal to Sigismund, but the people supported Charles. [110] The main street in Oslo, Slottsgaten, would later be named after Charles John as Karl Johans gate. [89], Soon after Charles John's arrival in Sweden, Napoleon compelled him to accede to the Continental System and declare war against the United Kingdom; otherwise, Sweden would have to face the determination of France, Denmark and Russia. His efforts culminated in the favourable Treaty of Kiel, which transferred Norway to Swedish control. It affected many prominent members of the nobility, some of whom were ruined by it. Koht, Halvdan. Moreover, none of Napoleon's brothers were interested in going to Sweden and his nephews were too young, as the Swedes did not want the hazards of minority rule in the event King Charles died prematurely. 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