data collection strategies within a phenomenological method of inquiry; therefore, phenomenology has both philosophical and methodological stances. When you are in love with your teaching, it seizes your imagination, will affect everything in your life. Being-in-the-world, the human person is in constant possibility of falling back to the state of untruthfulness. In this method the students are no longer passive recipients of knowledge. Statement such as “The car is red” is a statement of a fact. Understanding is always worldly, that is, it is always determined by how one conducts herself with the world she is in. phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996), for example, may seem to offer more pala-table alternatives in this regard. Wittgenstein (1974) explicates thus: The correct method of philosophy would really be the following: to say nothing except what can be said, i.e., propositions of natural science―i.e., something that has nothing to do with philosophy―and then, whatever someone wanted to say something metaphysical, to demonstrate to him that he had failed to give meaning to certain signs in his propositions. But such revelation happens only under the horizon of “time”. Historicity, for Heidegger (2008), entails the horizon into which every Dasein is thrown into. The subject does not enter into the object investigated. 73-74). An online community of members who were the loyal patrons of the bookstore were interviewed and related questions were asked and the questions were answered by them. One of the tasks of philosophy is to figure out what kinds of things exist out there in the world. Want to be notified when our article is published? Although it would not be satisfying to the other person―he would not have the feeling that we were teaching him philosophy―this method would be only strictly correct one (pp. So that outside of the world there is nothing that can be talked about. For example, a birthing woman's experience of pain or caregiving as it is experienced by a nurse. Who am I? Yet to simply conceptualize Being is to “enframe” it into the structure of particular things which are its sheer representations, that is to reduce one’s encounter with reality into mere ideas. While, the phenomenological method helps recover the primordial meaningfulness of life, that is, the eidetic aspects of our everyday lived-experiences, which is actualized by suspending our natural ways of dealing with the world. According to Gerry and Rhiza, phenomenology was originally a form of critique on the Cartesian Methodic Doubt. “Epoche or [bracketing] refers to the phenomenological reduction of our experience” (Ibid.). The historical understanding of oneself is the project of every human person. This is so because he conceives “perception as the paradigmatic kind of experience” (Solomon, 200, p. For Wittgenstein (1974), the meaningfulness of propositions rests in their picturing realities, that is, their being a picture of the state of affairs. Furthermore, Socrates pointed out that his wisdom is not the conventional wisdom of those individuals who are considered learned, because for his wisdom is human (Plato, 2000, p. 18e) and is derived from an incessant self-reflection that led him to realize his ignorance over things. Socrates explicates thus: I am wiser than this man; it is likely that neither of us knows anything worthwhile, but he thinks he knows something when he does not know, whereas when I do not know, neither do I think I now, so I am likely to be wiser than he to this small extent, that I do not think I know what I do not know (Plato, 2000, p. 21d). Of course, none of these charges was true in so far as Socrates’ conduct to the public were seen by his students. As long as I could hear them, they were mine. Here, language is “the picture of reality.”, Even without writing his own treatises in philosophy, the philosopher Socrates remains to be one of the most influential and enigmatic thinkers in the history of philosophy in general. Then one day, a terrible thing happened. Teaching must be approached with a passion not different from loving. This kind of information makes it easier for researchers to analyze the influence of so… In his book Being and Time, he uses many examples of how people live in their normal lives. For Socrates knowledge begins the moment one admits her ignorance, that is, of realizing that “[her] wisdom is worthless” (Plato, 2000, p. 23b). I kept him in a small cage which I placed on the porch table. Being engrossed with her everydayness, she tends to forget the primary reason of why she exists and begins to be complaisant thereby losing her authenticity. What I am aware of when I say “The book of Edmund Husserl on the Ideas is difficult to read.” is not just an idea of the book. Phenomenological Method One of the types of qualitative research methods, the phenomenological approach aims to explore the experiences of a particular phenomena in a community or a group of people. Phenomenology and Everyday Lived Experiences. This manifests when Socrates in the Apology engages himself in various dialogues with the learned men of Athens hoping to lead them to admit of their ignorance. Phenomenology in its origin takes the form of a critique against the claims of the Cartesian Methodic Doubt. And my canary’s singing. 73-74). Socrates was aware of this paradox with his insistence of having to know nothing despite of the gods calling him the wisest. Socrates in wanting to understand what the oracle of the god of Delphi set forth by questioning people who were referred to as wisest, for he knows in himself that he is not wise (Plato, 2000, p. 21b). "As they further note, he blurred the "distinctions between rational and irrational, subject and object." Example of a study in which focus group interviews were carried out. Analytic philosophy tends to provide an accurate presentation on the nature of language in order to solve the problems set by philosophy. As such, the article is aimed at sensitizing other novice investigators about things to consider in selecting a phenomenological perspective to answer their own research questions. Yes, teaching is tiring, but when we teach, it will light a life forever. Even a spider’s web is a thing of beauty. Socrates insists on the recognition of once ignorance and to know oneself in order for her to be truly wise. Aletheia happens as a form of liberation and aid from our state of facticity. And the only being who questions its very own Being is, according to Heidegger, the human person who he calls “Dasein.” Being then reveals itself to Dasein. To this end, one needs to understand it from a historical and philosophical stand point. Therefore, for Heidegger, “language is the house of Being”. The book in the process of the eidetic reduction is reduced into the state of a pure mental phenomenon. Outside of the world there is nothing to talk about. The history of philosophy is marked by the struggle for the search of the right method. He neither admitted nor proclaimed himself to be the wisest for he knew in himself that his knowledge of things is but limited and imperfect. The unity of experience is grasped by placing back the object to the self. Examples of complete contem- porary applications will be referenced at the very conclusion. It is an art because is proceeds with a free genius act of dealing with the original meaning of the text, recreating the textual meaning which lays bare for open interpretation. We learned above that the main project of phenomenology in general is the determination of the nature of our conscious lived experiences. Example of a … My property does not end at the place where the fence surrounding my house stands. Rather understanding is identified with one’s openness to her very world. And since the world is all that can be talked about, propositions that are outside of it are necessarily non-sense. But all these are contingent, relative to the inner self that I am. “Phenomenological reduction as an eidetic project attempts to lay bare the essential and general features of that world as a set of essential meanings” (David, 4). They relay to us what is the case. It entails not merely of her being knowledgeable of things as objects of conscious experience but also of her being situated in an embodied existence as “being-in-the-world.” Her knowledge of things is always identified with the situations she finds herself in, that is, in the experience of her facticity. Beauty can also be the object of possession. But is this my sole experience of my body? In the end, what exists in our mind is of course not the actual book but a reduced form of it, that is, the very essence of the book. The central project of the study of phenomenology is the rigorous determination of the nature of our conscious experiences. The philosophical study of man comes last in the curriculum. Phenomenology, then, “takes its start in the fundamental problem of describing accurately and completely the essential features of our everyday lived experience” (Solomon, 2002, p. 112). “I think; therefore, I am.” And it is on this certitude that Edmund Husserl, known to be the founder of the modern phenomenological movement, embraces the same Cartesian assumption. I was desperate, and the only thought that was in my mind was to capture the creature even if it meant that I had to kill him. I too some extent am both aware of the objects of my consciousness and of my being conscious of this experience. In most cases, my awareness of something appears to be one-sided, although it does not happen that way all the time. It will decide what will get you out of bed in the morning, what you will do with your evenings, how you spend your weekends, what you read, what you know that breaks your heart, and what amazes you with joy and gratitude. It is only given “from the front”, only “perspectivally foreshortened and projected,” etc … [T]he elements of the invisible rear side, the interior, and so on, … are not themselves part of the intuitive … content of the percept (Ibid., p. 118). She is the one who “discusses virtue everyday” (Plato, 2000, p. 37e) and who constantly embraces the thought of her being ignorant. This he pertinently calls an “intellectual midwifery.” This helps in making clear all our assertions of our assumed knowledge of things. My favorite pet had flown away, leaving behind him the empty cage, which I have thought was so beautiful and was not a mere reminder of the happy days when I used to hear him sing. Analytic philosophy in principle is directed upon either solving or decimating the problems of philosophy in general. The objects on my table constitutes for a lived experience of which I too am aware. There are as many methods as there are philosophers who want to provide an exhaustive account of the matter they hold in question, although only few among them agree with each other’s presuppositions. Socrates’ teaching ultimately begins with the acknowledgment of one’s ignorance over many things. Very often, I would watch spiders spinning their webs. They relate to us what is the world being a picture of reality. I discover that my watch is not there; but it ought to be there; normally my watch is in my pocket. I hope this will be able to help them in their studies and make them better persons. What this means is that phenomenology is ultimately directed upon bringing into light the primordial meaningfulness of our everyday-lived experiences. "Madaling maging tao, mahirap magpakatao". Teachers who display an intense love for teaching do inspire their students and infuse them with enthusiasm to take their learning seriously and joyfully. Husserl explicates that Descartes has failed to ground knowledge on a firm footing. Some examples: Who am I? For language to be meaningful, it must picture that which is real. I put my hand, let us say, into my pocket to take my watch out. From primary reflection, I can answer the question by mentioning my name, date of birth, place of birth, height, weight – the items I would normally fill out in a registration card. I never forgot to feed him regularly, a task which I never entrusted to anybody else. as an example that demonstrates how the method can be concretely applied to descriptive data, but we urge that it not be construed as a completed research project. Understanding the experience of midlife women taking part in a work-life balance career coaching programme: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Furthermore, what is prevalent in the entire discussion above is a kind of method that is introduced by Socrates in his didactic dialogue. Socrates, being an exceptional teacher, was accused of corrupting the youth, treason and, and atheism. Although phenomenological approaches typically employ sm all sample siz es, this is n ot always the case; for example, Benn er and colleagues’ (Tanner et al., 1993) use of interpretive teams The method is later known as “the Socratic method of questioning.”. Through this methodology, disclosure of a realm of being which presented itself with absolute certainty, arising from experience, seemed possible. My neighbor’s pet dog is rightfully mine if he wags his tail in joy when he sees me coming. The way I carry my body is unique. This is realized by allowing the students to qualify their truth-claims as they engage in the didactic dialogue, that is to lead them to think deeper and assert what they hold to be true. It refers to the state of existence that every human being is born and is comporting herself with. But the feeling quickly passed, because I realized that the song I was hearing was just the same as, if not more beautiful than, the song that I heard from the cage. For the human person is not just in the world, she is also engaged with it and is determined by the world. From the behavior of man to think and decide, it is concluded that he must be gifted with a human soul. 269-316). transcendental, hermeneutic and existential. Whenever my friends called on me, I very often showed them my prized canary with pride. Language in this regard is a picturing, since it presents to us an objectivity that is coming from the states of affairs derived from the configurations of objects in the world. Here Socrates discusses how he is not guilty of the accusations thrown at him. In the Apology Socrates is depicted to be defending himself against the accusations of Meletus and Anytus in front of the Athenian crowd. After I had fed him I did not notice that I had left the cage door open. Only I can understand my life fully well because it appears to me in such a peculiarly special manner. That time I felt a longing inside me, a longing to have him back. My perception of what I assert to be a book of the “Idea” is different from my perception of the façade of the book. The truth-value of such complex propositions is identified by the truth-value of its constitutive propositions. According to Marcel, reflection which is rooted in experience, is of two levels: Primary Reflection. This chapter, thus far, ably presents the four main methods of philosophy: the Socratic, phenomenological, hermeneutic, and analytical methods. I think that it is in man’s nature to have sadistic tendencies. Propositions such as “The car is red”, “The flowers in the garden are beautiful”, “The house across the street is old and dilapidated” are some linguistic expressions that find their sense in their picturing the facts of the world. 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