boisei. P. robustus and H. habilis may have achieved about the same grade of bipedality. Palaeomagnatism suggests Member 3 may date to 1.78–1.6 million years ago, Member 2 to before 1.78 million years ago, and Member 1 to 2.11–1.95 million years ago. This could potentially indicate the lower limbs had a wider range of motion than those of modern humans. P. robustus may have had a genetic susceptibility for pitting enamel hypoplasia on the teeth, and seems to have had a dental cavity rate similar to non-agricultural modern humans.  In 1983, while studying SK 1585 (P. robustus) and KNM-ER 407 (P. boisei, which he referred to as robustus), French anthropologist Roger Saban stated that the parietal branch of the middle meningeal artery originated from the posterior branch in P. robustus and P. boisei instead of the anterior branch as in earlier hominins, and considered this a derived characteristic due to increased brain capacity. If P. robustus preferred a savanna habitat, a multi-male society would have been more conducive in defending the troop from predators in the more exposed environment, much like baboons which live in the savanna. McKinley also speculated that sexual maturity was reached at approximately 11 years because it is about halfway between the averages for chimps (9 years) and humans (13).  In 2020, palaeoanthropologist Jesse M. Martin and colleagues' phylogenetic analyses reported the monophyly of Paranthropus, but also that P. robustus had branched off before P. aethiopicus (that P. aethiopicus was ancestral to only P. Paranthropus robustus is known from several fossil sites in South Africa and lived from about 2 to 1 million years ago.  In response, Leutenegger pointed out that apes have highly variable foetal growth rates, and "estimates on gestation periods based on this rate and birth weight are useless. Traditional methods of dietary reconstruction do not allow the investigation of dietary variability within the lifetimes of individual hominins. , At Sterkfontein, only the specimens StW 566 and StW 569 are firmly assigned to P. robustus, coming from the "Oldowan infill" dating to 2–1.7 million years ago in a section of Member 5. , Drimolen Cave was first discovered to have yielded hominin remains by Keyser in 1992, who, in 8 years, oversaw the recovery of 79 P. robustus specimens. , Few vertebrae are assigned to P. robustus. It has features typical of P. robustus, including large zygomatic arches and a prominent sagittal crest. Though some bones had cut marks consistent with butchery, they said it was also possible hominins were making fire to scare away predators or for warmth instead of cooking. Found in a hilltop cave, the oldest known Homo erectus and Paranthropus robustus fossils shed light on a critical period of hominin evolution. Wood, B., Strait, D., 2004. Like humans, the finger bones are uncurved and have weaker muscle attachment than non-human apes, though the proximal phalanges are smaller than in humans.  A high cavity rate could indicate honey consumption.  The well-defined sagittal crest and inflated cheeks are absent in the presumed-female skull DNH-7, so Keyser suggested that male P. robustus may have been more heavily built than females (P. robustus was sexually dimorphic). Sep 3, 2019 - Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) is an early hominin, originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. Robust australopithecines—as opposed to gracile australopithecines—are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forces, as well as inflated cheek teeth (molars and premolars). Broom considered them evidence of a greater diversity of hominins in the Pliocene from which they and modern humans descended from, and that several hominin taxa existed alongside human ancestors. 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